HTML Ampersand Characters

These are character sequences that may appear in HTML documents; they represent sometimes useful symbols that are not part of the standard ASCII set or that would be difficult or impossible to type otherwise (e.g. the less-than sign, which would always be mistaken for the beginning of an HTML tag). Case is signinficant.

The content of this table has been throughly tested. If the character that appears in the first column does not fit the description in the third column, your browser has a screw loose.

" Double quote
& Ampersand ("and" sign)
< Less-than
> Greater-than
un-linebreak-able space
¡ Upside-down !
¢ Cent sign (c crossed out)
£ Pound sign: the currency symbol
not the tic-tac-toe telephone symbol, which is incorrectly called "pound".
¤ circle with dashes at NE, SE, SW, and NW
¥ Y crossed out
¦ Vertical line, maybe with gap in middle
§ Section sign (like hurricane symbol on weather maps)
¨ Two dots up in the air
© Copyright sign (C in a circle)
ª lower case "a" up in the air
« Two small less-than signs: the German open-quote
¬ Not sign from classical logic
­ "Soft" hyphen: a dash
® Registered sign (R in a circle)
¯ Macron (horizontal line up in the air)
° Degree sign
± Plus-or-minus sign
² 2 up in the air
³ 3 up in the air
´ Little dash pointing to North-East
µ Micro sign, lower case Greek Mu
Paragraph sign (mirror image capital P with two legs and a black eye)
· Decimal Point (English style, mid-level)
¸ Small sickle shape, low down
¹ 1 up in the air
º lower case "o" up in the air
» Two small greater-than signs: the German close-quote
¼ One quarter
½ One half
¾ Three quarters
¿ Upside-down ?
× Times sign: narrow x without serifs
÷ Division sign: a colon : with a dash through it
Ð Old English voiced "Th", "D" with dash through upright
ð Old Englished voiced "th": bendy "d" with dash through tail
Þ Old English unvoiced "Th": "P" but loop has slipped down
þ Old English unvoiced "th": smaller version of the above
Æ "A" and "E" in a ligature, as in ENCYCLOPAEDIA
æ "a" and "e" in a ligature, as in "encyclopaedia"
Π"O" and "E" in a ligature, as in MANOEUVRE
œ "o" and "e" in a ligature, as in "manoeuvre"
Å "A" with a little circle above: Angstrom sign
Ø "O" with diagonal line through: Empty set sign
Ç "C" with cedilla (sickle shape) underneath
ç "c" with cedilla (sickle shape) underneath
ß German "sz" ligature, like a lower case Greek Beta
Ñ N with wiggle on top
ñ n with wiggle on top

Accents and things

Accents on letters are available in all sorts of (but not every possible) combination.
The accents available are:
  • Acute: little dash on top, pointing to North-East,
  • Grave: little dash on top, pointing to North-West,
  • Circumflex: like a roof on top of the letter,
  • Umlaut: two dots on top, could also be used as a dieresis,
  • Tilde: wiggle on top,
  • Ring: circle on top, touching the letter.
They can appear on capital and lower case versions of A, E, I, O, U, and Y.
Some consonants also have similar marks, but they are listed in the first table.

The HTML "character entities" are made by combining four elements:
  1. an ampersand "&",
  2. the letter to be accented, either capital or lower case,
  3. the abbreviation for the desired accent:
    Acute=acute, Grave=grave, Circumflex=circ, Unlaut=uml, Dieresis=uml, Tilde=tilde, Ring=ring
  4. a semicolon ";"
Example: for a capital E with a grave accent use &Egrave;

The following table attempts all the combinations so you can see which work. I have marked with the abbreviation "std" all those that supposed to be there, so you should be able to rely on their presence, but you know what browsers are like.

A acute Á std
A grave À std
A circ  std
A uml Ä std
A tilde à std
A ring Å std
a acute á std
a grave à std
a circ â std
a uml ä std
a tilde ã std
a ring å std
E acute É std
E grave È std
E circ Ê std
E uml Ë std
E tilde &Etilde;
E ring &Ering;
e acute é std
e grave è std
e circ ê std
e uml ë std
e tilde &etilde;
e ring &ering;
I acute Í std
I grave Ì std
I circ Î std
I uml Ï std
I tilde Ĩ
I ring &Iring;
i acute í std
i grave ì std
i circ î std
i uml ï std
i tilde ĩ
i ring &iring;
O acute Ó std
O grave Ò std
O circ Ô std
O uml Ö std
O tilde Õ std
O ring &Oring;
o acute ó std
o grave ò std
o circ ô std
o uml ö std
o tilde õ std
o ring &oring;
U acute Ú std
U grave Ù std
U circ Û std
U uml Ü std
U tilde Ũ
U ring Ů
u acute ú std
u grave ù std
u circ û std
u uml ü std
u tilde ũ
u ring ů
Y acute Ý std
Y grave &Ygrave;
Y circ Ŷ
Y uml Ÿ std
Y tilde &Ytilde;
Y ring &Yring;
y acute ý std
y grave &ygrave;
y circ ŷ
y uml ÿ std
y tilde &ytilde;
y ring &yring;